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Waves can hardly be separated from the ocean experience – ridges of water, big and small, seemingly travelling vast distances. Science does teach us, however, to not get carried away in those dreamy distances, and instead to understand waves as upward and downward movements of water that lead to the transfer of energy across wide spans.

Wave types explained

Types of waves

Nearly all the waves seen in the ocean are created by winds, but not all of these can be defined by a single set of parameters. To understand ocean waves better, we can classify them into two basic types – progressive waves and standing waves.

Progressive waves are those that we pictured in the beginning of this article – the ridges of water that seem to travel miles before they reach us. In other words, progressive waves are the waves that appear to ‘move’ across the water surface. This type of wave includes all the standard characteristics – a crest (created by upward movement), a trough (created by downward movement), wavelength, amplitude etc. This category of waves includes not only the familiar surface waves caused by wind, but also the internal waves and tsunamis generated by seismic disturbances, landslides or volcanoes on the ocean floor. Progressive waves are technically independent of each other. When two or more of these waves happen to cross paths, they simply pass through each other, the only difference being an addition to or subtraction from the crest or trough at the meeting point. This explains why waves on a beach always seem random, because at any given point in time there are several different groups of waves coming in from different parts of the ocean surface.

Standing waves occur when two equivalent waves travel in opposite directions, thus maintaining the upward and downward motion of the water, but eliminating its ‘progression’ or apparent movement in any direction. Such waves are akin to those that occur in swimming pools. In the ocean they are frequently seen near the coast, where the water has a tendency to meet seawalls or even hulls of ships. This action causes a great deal of sloshing, leading to what is known as a ‘seiche’ – the most common type of standing ocean wave.

Waves can also be reflected or refracted. Reflection is fairly easy to understand – a progressive wave is redirected in the opposite direction when it hits a barrier of some sort. Refraction is a whole new deal. To understand refracted waves, recall how when seen from the shore, all the waves seem to line up and approach the coast. This parallel motion is caused by the water becoming shallower towards the shore, causing the waves that are nearer to the coast to slow down, allowing others to catch up. This creates parallel layers of waves, and also some interesting phenomena. One of these is the ‘longshore drift’ that gives a swimmer the tendency to drift towards the coast. The other is ‘breaking’, caused by the layers of waves just described getting closer and closer to each other, creating a tall wall of water, which incidentally is what enables surfing.

Ocean swell
Ocean swell driven by wind

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Great white shark facts


There aren’t many facts about the great white shark that haven’t already been relayed over and over again. This predator of the seas does complete justice to the fear and awe associated with sharks. Reigning over nearly all the coastal waters on earth, the great white preys on an enormous variety of fish and seabirds, while paying obeisance to only one species of marine life – the killer whale or orca. Spielberg officially named the great white shark a ‘ferocious man-eater’ in the 1975 blockbuster – ‘Jaws’.

Scene from Jaws movie
Scene from Jaws movie

However, there is more to this marine predator than meets the eye (or the imagination, to be more appropriate). While it does enjoy a rather extensive menu when it comes to the species it consumes, recent research seems to suggest that it isn’t a natural trait of the great white to feed upon humans. Instead, the majority of the unprovoked attacks recorded across the globe, were a ‘sampling’ exercise of sorts, and only proved that these sharks decided against adding humans to the array of marine wanderers they prey on.

Great white and human

As more and more facts about the great white shark are unearthed, one cannot help but marvel at the design that renders it almost invincible. Having evolved over 16 million years ago and sharing family ties with C. megalodon (a prehistoric shark), the great white gets its name from its white underbelly; its dorsal region is slate grey, acting as a camouflage against the backdrop of the ocean floor. A Gigantic creature, its torpedo shaped body and immensely powerful tail ensures that it guides its 5000 pound mass easily at 15 miles an hour.

But that is not all. While the great white does have an exceptionally powerful sense of smell, what makes it unique is its ability to detect movements in electromagnetic fields. Every time a potential prey moves – even the tiniest bit – it sets the predator on its trail. To illustrate this point further, the great white can sense fluctuations as close to one billionth of a volt – meaning that even if a human heart beats close enough, it shall be found.

Powerful shark

Over the years of its evolution, the great white has gone on to add more and more weapons to its impressive armoury. 300 serrated teeth, laid out in multiple rows, replacing each other as needed, are the primary tools of the trade. Also significant is the shark’s body temperature which is slightly warmer than the ocean water, enabling it to hunt the more slippery and agile prey – the sea lion for instance. This feature also helps in ‘breaching’ – an act in which it completely leaves the water to attack its prey. In fact, the great white shark has a habit of regularly lifting its head to glimpse the action above the surface of the water. This is because it can smell better above the water surface than below it.

Great white shark teeth

The great white shark has earned itself a formidable reputation, but the fact remains that it appears on the list on endangered species today. It may be a wise move to admire this predator of the seas for the design marvel that it is, and attribute the danger associated with it to the simple thought that perhaps the ocean ought to be left as it is.

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Shark deterrent wetsuit

Out of all the shark deterrents out there, probably one of the most interesting of all is the wetsuit version. It seems to be "shark week" with all the recent posts on this topic but you'll find this one highly appropriate.

It's important to note that the following is not a deterrent but probably an attraction to sharks, so be careful not buy one of these goodies.

Since that's out the way, let's take a look at the real deal and more importantly, do they actually work? Who and what kind of review can we expect to read from people who have purchased these things? Perhaps something like "Great suit, I windsurfed in shark-infested waters to test this new suit and it seemed to have worked, I'm still here", or how about "Unfortunately my husband's suit never worked".

Obviously we can't get rely on reports like that but rather relying on research or studies completed by the seller of these wetsuits. Let's take a look at the kind of shark repelling suits that are available. If you search online stores such as eBay or Amazon you'll find they are quite scarce but this one did show up below and if you click on it you'll see the product:


Shark rash vest Shark rash vest

As you can see, this particular item is actually a rash vest but it claims the following:

"The unique color pattern of our rash Guard mimics the features of highly venomous Lion Fish, therefore minimizing your chances of being mistaken for a sea lion or any other type of favourite food on the menu of local sharks."

and also

"The design of our Rash Guard makes swimmers and surfers look unattractive to sharks. Lion Fish is not on a shark's normal menu, and despite attempts to train sharks to eat Lion Fish, these attempts were only limited to one place off the coast of Honduras."

as well as

"In addition to poisonous looking fish stripes on the surface of our Rash Guard, the large eyes placed in an unnatural location should also confuse and scare off potential predators looking for a quick bite."

and finally

"...there were articles published in ABC News Australia’s web site confirming that using particular patterns on swim garments would make the wearer appear obnoxious, poisonous or unattractive to the sharks.

While we can't guarantee that wearing our Rash Guard will make your totally invisible to sharks, there is a good probability that your already slim chance of being bitten by this predator might become even slimmer."

So the question is this, does it work?

Recently Professor Shaun Collin and Dr. Nathan Hart of the University of Western Australia’s Oceans Institute published research suggesting that sharks were cone monochromats, which means they are probably colour blind animals.

Based on that it may be possible to design a suit that can create some kind of camouflage suit that reduces the chance of attack, which would also entail a suit designed for certain types of water conditions. Otherwise another option is to create a wetsuit that repels the shark directly. To repel them directly would require the use of contrast.

There is strong evidence that if something looks like food that sharks don't like, then sharks will avoid it, according to Dr. Hart. Tiger sharks were also observed swimming past dummies that had striped pattern wetsuits, but those clad in traditional black wetsuits were attacked.

One question raised is that, what if the designer unknowingly produced suits with patterns that attracted sharks? Obviously there are foods in the ocean that sharks like to eat? The answer is that this is already the case with our usual black wetsuits and surfboards. We've all read articles on how surfers look like seals in the water when paddling on their surfboards in full bodied black wetsuits.

The combination looks entirely natural to a shark in terms of food, especially the big sharks. One thing is certain, if they work there is no shortage of demand.

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Posted by on in Windsurfing


When it comes to sportracks you might be overwhelmed by all the different models and features available. Hopefully this article will help you decide which one you need. We'll include those fora range of sports and not just windsurfing, since many of us also enjoy other sports.

Some of the factors in deciding which one to get will obviously depend on the type of equipment you'll carry but apart from that you ought to look at things like, adjustments, weight load, how much play there is, the type of fitting it uses and also the price.

Our Sportrack and roof rack picks

SportRack SR1010 Complete Roof Rack System

This type comes in at about $160 off amazon and is one of the most popular of the range. That's probably because it's quite versatile and you can use these racks for a number of sports.


The biggest pro is that they're versatile. They can be used on most vehicles generally speaking. You can also attach different equipment such as bikes, kayaks, surf boards and your windsurfing gear.

They're not confined to sports either and soon you'll find them more useful when you need to transport other things like household items for example, provided they're not too heavy. The price is not that bad either compared to other racks out their which are hundreds of dollars.

If you're looking to save some more dollars, then you can avoid using a professional to install them. Installing them is pretty straight forward and you don't need to be incredibly smart. It doesn't take long either which means you can remove them and use them on other cars whenever you like.

Most people are quite happy with the product.


Fitting the item is not a big deal but there is one area that could probably benefit from some improvements and that's the metal plate-clip that clamps the racks down. They seems to be sturdy enough but there are reports of them coming lose.

They might also have a bit of play depending on the roof shape on your vehicle no matter how tight you try to fit them. It's hard to tell before buying them and the only way you'll find out is after they're fitted. The problem with even the slightest shift is that over time the rubbing will create some wear.

Malone Auto Racks Universal Car Roof Rack

This Malone product is quite impressive on a number of points. Also a popular one and if you see for yourself there are 150 reviews and counting.

Considering these are the "crossbar" type, they have a different fitting system compared to the previous product we listed here.


Most people that buy them are happy which provides immediate assurance that they'll do what they're supposed to do. The major benefits are also the fact that these racks are "universal" and can carry different types of equipment. Their selling points are:


  • Universal crossbar that fits nearly all factory-installed vehicle side rails
  • Transports kayaks, canoes, snowboards, surfboards, roof boxes, and more
  • Square profile bars provide a secure, tight fit for rack accessories
  • Rust-resistant rubberized bar coating stands up to years of rugged use
  • Key-locking attachment towers; supports up to 132 pounds

You can select different sizes so you'll need to do some research as to what size you need before purchasing them.


We're not quite sure on the "key lock" and seems to be a bit of a selling rap more than security device. If anyone wanted to take your racks, it should slow them down a bit. However, you should be more worried about what's attached to them.

We looked for some reports on the stability aspect and some have claimed them to "slide" a tiny bit. It isn't much of a big deal anyway considering that there is a natural roof curve on most cars which would prevent them from sliding too much. However, we would prefer to see a rock solid type to begin which. You'll notice in this picture that the roof bar sits nice and flush with the rack, which is ideal.

They aren't heavy duty (that's what you pay for), so don't try to load up hundreds of kilograms on them.

SportRack SR7011 Horizon Cargo Box, 11-Cubic Feet

If you're looking for something over and above roof bars then you might want something like this. It provides you with 11 cubic feet of storage space that can fit on most roof racks.

It won't carry your windsurfing board, but if it's snowing you can then transport things like skis or snowboards. This model will carry about 3 snowboards and 6 pairs of skis.


Some of the points worth mentioning is that these units are streamlined, which help with fuel economy over long distances. That's a major plus if you're the adventurous type that travels a lot.

The main selling points on this item are:

  • Rugged construction made from impact resistant ABS material
  • Secure centralized lock for easy opening and closing
  • Passenger side opening for access away from traffic
  • Easy-snaps hardware mounting system for quick on/off
  • Fits SportRack Roof Rack Systems, square, round and most factory racks

It comes with a "Limited Lifetime Warranty" that should provide some assurance on its quality. They also state that it fits all "SportRack Frontier roof rack systems", square, round and most factory racks. The "other factory racks" could be questionable!


There are not as many reviews out there as we'd like so it's hard to tell the most common problem people have with this brand. There are a few draw backs that we picked up on. One of them is that it seems to be a tad bit too long on some cars which creates the problem of opening your hatch while it's on the roof.

Thule Pulse Cargo Box

This model has a better performance rating than the previous one listed but it's also the more expensive one. The dimensions are 89 x 13 x 27 inches and come in different sizes, 11, 14 and 16 cubic feet.

It serves as a transport container useful for carrying and protection your valuable gear. As with most of these brand their size will limit you as to what you can store in them.


This sleeker streamlined unit along is convenient and super easy to use. It uses their "Easy-Grip Mounting" and can quickly attach to your racks. It delivers on quality and also has the durable and rugged ABS material. It's claimed to be long-lasting and is designed to protect the contents during transit.

The locking system is adequate and is secure enough to be used as a security measure. It opens and locks on both sides and compared to the "elite" model, its higher price is still affordable.

One of the selling points often liked are the "Single-Side Opening for safe, passenger side loading unloading of items", which is a major plus. Most people enjoy the fact that it's very light which helps to carry it and the height is praised.


There are some people who were still not happy. It's hard to avoid the critic in all cases however, these points were worth mentioning on this product.

Some users state that it's bouncy and flexible which makes a big of a wind noise that could be unpleasant. A few reviews contain complaints related to fuel consumption, that the box increases their consumption which is disappointing as you'd expect good fuel economy considering the product is quite streamlined. Perhaps it's related to the load rather than the box.

Overall, given the few complaints that are listed and for the price versus quality, it's a good buy for most people which seem to agree.

SportRack SR4611 Locking Roof Bike Carrier

If you're looking for an affordable bike rack then this will do the job. It's designed for one bike which is great for on the go transport. It's a simple model with a simple purpose of transporting a bike and ideal if you don't need a rack for multiple bikes.

Some of the specs are:

  • Maximum load - 45 LB
  • Rack compatibility - Check fit guide below to determine fit to car make and model. If car make and model are not listed, no SportRack system is currently available for that car. Fits round, square and factory-installed square crossbars.
    • Crossbars diameters must not be greater than 3-1/2"
    • Minimum crossbar spread - 24"
    • Maximum crossbar spread - 34"
  • Grip arm bike tube compatibility - elliptical and 1" - 2-1/2" diameter bike tubes
  • Fits most bikes with disc brakes - Yes
  • Bikes lock to carrier - Yes
  • Carrier locks to rack - Yes (with cable lock, sold separately)


It allows you attach a bike without taking off the front tyre. The goal is for convenience and time saving. For example, if you're doing a bike trip with mates and would like to try a few locations. Then moving from one spot to another will ensure that no-one has to wait for you to fit the front wheel and fix your adjustments, just take your bike off and go. Besides, fitting your wheel on every time before riding can get frustrating in one day, even though you might say "putting on a front tyre isn't that much of a big deal".

The price is affordable but you should consider that it needs a set of base racks to begin with. You'd need a decent pair for added stability.


The obvious one is that it cannot take tandem bikes. So if you're going out, your bike is the only one that's going with. There are a few reviews some of which are the following complaints:

  • Cracks on the arm handle and unsafe
  • Plastic material that has broken
  • Could be too short for some bikes

It's worth mentioning that the first 2 of these review complaints are obviously from items that had problems and could indicate an issue with quality. Perhaps if there were more reviews their overall rating would be higher as people who are unhappy are more likely to review an item than those who are.

SportRack SR2901LR 2-Bike Lock and Tilt Platform Hitch Rack

Here is a bike rack that will allow you to fix 2 bikes so that you can at least take a friend along when going for a ride. The carrier features include: 1-1/4" and 2" hitch receiver compatibility with the locking functionality you need. It has fold-up wheel loop arms and there is access to vehicles from the rear.

Built for two bikes some of the specs are:

  • 35 x 15.8 x 7 inches
  • 30.8 pounds
  • Hooks and wheel trays adjust to fit almost all bike frames and sizes
  • 90 LB maximum carrying weight limit


Along with the higher price it also comes with a better rating than the previous bike rack listed here. Most people are satisfied with it and the construction seems to be strong and durable. The system is more stable which is obviously also due to the fact that it doesn't go on top of your car. Over and above that, many of the reviews claim that it's solid and sturdy.

A major advantage of having a rack on the rear of your car is that you free up space on your roof, allowing you to transport roof-top gear as well. Unlike using a roof-top bike rack which limits you to a bike only trip!

Some of their selling points are claimed as the following:

  • Hitch mount bike storage conserves internal vehicle storage, and atop roof racks
  • One to two bicycle stowage capacity
  • Simple knob-based assembly
  • Features independent adjusting, padded ratcheting bike hooks that clamp down on virtually all frame styles and sizes
  • Raised wheel hoops for both bike wheels that quickly adjust to virtually all bike lengths and bike wheel sizes
  • Centre post tilts away when carrier is empty and platform arms are extended for easy and convenient rear vehicle access
  • Constructed of durable and long lasting high-grade steel.
  • Includes locks built into each bike hook, and a SportRack hitch lock for maximum security
  • Moveable rubberized hooks that secure the bike ensure protection for the finish
  • The centre folds down for rear vehicle access and folds up when not in use
  • Includes locks to secure the bike to the rack and rack to the vehicle

The product also comes with a "Limited Lifetime Warranty".


Some disappointments noted reported by users are:

  • Some users spent more time than they'd like on setting up and fitting the rack, especially the pins.
  • A few claims of the rack having a wobble due to an adapter for the larger hitch, which is plastic.
  • Some complaints on the screwing bolt that goes through the receiver. That it's too short, or lock does not secure on pin.
  • Time spent on assembly.

Overall the rack is used by a large number of satisfied customers who have coped fine even with the complaints stated above.

SportRack 4-Bike Tilting Platform Hitch Rack

The last item to list here for bikes is this rack from SportRack designed to carry up to 4 bikes per vehicle. It's also fitted to the rear end of your car giving you that roof space needed for other gear.

Ideal for a family of bike riders. Most of us wouldn't carry more than 4 bikes at a time so this is more than enough for families that enjoy bike rides together. Perfect for family holidays and adventurous camping trips.

The specs for this rack are:

  • 70 pounds
  • 46 x 13 x 10 inches
  • Centre folds down for rear vehicle access
  • Moveable rubberized hooks secure the bike to the rack while protecting the finish
  • Hooks and wheel trays adjust to fit almost all bike frames and sizes


The majority of reviews state that the construction is solid and sturdy and the material seems strong enough to satisfy customers.


This can be debated as a problem, but some complain that the rack is heavy and is easier attach with the help of two people. However, it's obvious that it's heavier because it's larger due to the fact that it carries 4 bikes.

Rather a heavier and stronger construction than a lighter weaker one. The major consequence of heavier items is increased fuel consumption which is normal on any load.

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Interesting facts about sharks

Our friend the shark has the obvious connection to almost every water sport enthusiast out there. A lot of us suffer from a phobia or fear of shark attack, not convinced? Who doesn't jump out the water instantly when they fall into the deeper water?

Perhaps it is indeed a matter of understanding and awareness. Most of us turn the channel or look away when there is a show or images of sharks because we just don't want the thought of getting bitten to pop into our heads.

Here are some real but interesting facts about these animals that might change your view in the slightest degree about them.

Shark facts

Here are some interesting shark facts that you might not know about

What are my chances of getting killed by a shark?

You have a chance of about 1 in 300 million, the reason why it seems so more common is because of the fact that it's so infrequent that when it does happen, it makes every headline in the world. Rare instances are absolutely loved by the media. Things that happen often are less likely to get reported.

You have a far greater chance of getting killed by lightning, coconuts or bees. If coconuts are more lethal than sharks, why aren't we more afraid of them? The answer is... "the idea of getting eaten alive".

Is the movie Jaws real?

Surprisingly, the movie is based on a real event that happened in 1916 where 4 people were fatally attacked by a killer shark in New Jersey, USA.

Sharks may cure cancer

Sharks hardly ever get cancer and scientists are trying to figure out why, if they do, we might be able to enjoy the same benefits. Also, according to recent studies, sharks are at greater risk of cancer today due water pollution.

How many types of sharks are there?

There are just over 440 known types of shark. It's likely that there are a few more species unknown us.

We all want shark teeth

A shark generally has about 45 teeth at a given time with several rows (up to 7) of replacement teeth. They grow back fast, real fast, in fact sharks can go through more than 30 000 teeth in a lifetime.

Sharks have no backbone

Sharks have no bones at all and their "skeletal" structure is made up entirely of cartilage, which is a little weird indeed.

Shark live is tough

The first tiger shark pup to hatch eats the other unborn sibling pups until only two pups are left.

Sharks hate men

90% of shark attack victims are men. Who knows why, but it seems they have some hidden agendas.

Shallow water attacks

Most attacks happen in shallow water, so our greater fear of deeper water is somewhat unfounded. Even though we feel safer in shallow water, the risk seems greater.

Sharks ought to be afraid of us

For every 1 human that is killed by a shark, we kill a few million in return, talk about race discrimination.

Fresh water

Bull sharks are able to swim up river into fresh water and readjust or regulate their bodies accordingly. They can swim thousands of kilometers up rivers. Perhaps there is a justified fear for sharks in your toilet.

Old bastards

Some sharks live long, the Whale shark can live up to 100 years and they're also the largest fish in the world. However, this poor sucker has to wait 30 years until they can produce baby sharks.

Shark attack vs shark deaths

While the number of shark attacks are small, the number of deaths by shark attacks are even smaller. Most of us assume that a shark attack means that someone has been killed, in fact most attacks don't result in death.

Are all sharks evil killers?

Only a few sharks of the hundreds of species are "potential attackers" that could harm us. There are actually only 3 sharks worth mentioning as potential threats. The Great white, Tiger shark and Bull shark. Which are responsible for the majority of attacks on people.

Not so deaf of dumb

Sharks have ears and have good hearing. They have inner ears that can pick up sounds from 250 meters away.

No rest for sharks, ever!

Some sharks will simply die if they don't stop swimming, because if they do, they'll suffocate to death from lack of oxygen going through their gills.

How scared of sharks are you?

If you have a phobia of them, it's called Galeophobia.

1st place for high jump

Great white sharks can jump up to 3 meters out of water. This can be seen off the coast of South Africa at sea Island. Here they launch upon their seal prey when attacking them and the force propels them out of the water.

Horrible history

Upon the sinking of the USS Indianapolis during World War II. Almost 900 sailors were left in the Philippine Sea near for 4 days. When help arrived only 316 people were still alive and no-one knows for sure how many where taken by sharks, but rumours say that the sharks had a feast.

Pound for pound

Great white sharks don't have much more of a harder bite than humans do.

Poking it's eyes may not help

When a shark attacks it doesn't close its eyelids, a great white shark instead rolls its eyes into the back of its head when it attacks. This helps the shark protect its eyes, so trying to poke them may not help as much as what we think should we get attacked by one.

Sharky smell

Sharks can detect 1 drop of blood in an Olympic sized swimming pool.

Hearty creatures

Sharks can sense your heartbeat through their sensory nodules called mpullae of Lorenzini.

Sharks are blamed for almost anything

An ancient Greek historian called Herodotus said that sharks destroyed a Persian fleet in the 5th century B.C.. This is the most likely the first time sharks were labelled with a killer reputation.


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